Literature Reviews

Procedure-specific systematic review summary

Bibliography

C-Section

Najafi Anaraki and Mirzaei 2014

The effect of gabapentin versus intrathecal fentanyl on postoperative pain and morphine consumption in cesarean delivery: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

Najafi Anaraki A, Mirzaei K.

Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2014 Jul;290(1):47-52

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24518937


Moore et al 2011

Gabapentin improves postcesarean delivery pain management: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

Moore A, Costello J, Wieczorek P, Shah V, Taddio A, Carvalho JC.

Anesth Analg. 2011 Jan;112(1):167-73

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21081764


Short et al 2012

A single preoperative dose of gabapentin does not improve postcesarean delivery pain management: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dose-finding trial.

Short J, Downey K, Bernstein P, Shah V, Carvalho JC.

Anesth Analg. 2012 Dec;115(6):1336-42

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23011560


Cardoso et al 2013

Effect of dexamethasone on prevention of postoperative nausea, vomiting and pain after caesarean section: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial.

Cardoso MM, Leite AO, Santos EA, Gozzani JL, Mathias LA.

Eur J Anaesthesiol 2013;30(3):102-105

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23022704


Wu et al 2007

Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after intrathecal morphine for Cesarean section: a randomized comparison of dexamethasone, droperidol, and a combination.

Wu JI, Lo Y, Chia YY, Liu K, Fong WP, Yang LC, Tan PH.

Int J Obstet Anesth. 2007 Apr;16(2):122-7.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17275282


Davies et al 1997

Maternal experience during epidural or combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for cesarean section: a prospective, randomized trial.

Davies SJ, Paech MJ, Welch H, Evans SF, Pavy TJ

Anesth Analg. 1997 Sep;85(3):607-13.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9296417


Lew et al 2004

Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia using epidural volume extension leads to faster motor recovery after elective cesarean delivery: a prospective, randomized, double-blind study.

Lew E, Yeo SW, Thomas E.

Anesth Analg 2004;98(3):810–814.

Epidural volume extension (EVE) via a combined spinal-epidural (CSE) technique is the enhancement of a small-dose intrathecal block by epidural saline boluses. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, we compared the EVE technique with single-shot spinal anesthesia with respect to its sensory and motor block profile and hemodynamic stability. Sixty-two parturients (n = 31 in each group) undergoing elective cesarean deliveries were administered either spinal anesthesia with hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine 9 mg and fentanyl 10 microg or CSE comprising intrathecal hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine 5 mg with fentanyl 10 microg, followed by 0.9% saline 6.0 mL through the epidural catheter 5 min thereafter. In each group, the lowest systolic blood pressure (SBP), sensory block level to loss of pain from pinprick, and modified Bromage scores were recorded at 2.5-min intervals. The visual analog pain score (VAS), peak sensory block height, highest modified Bromage motor score, time for sensory regression to the tenth thoracic dermatome (T10), and motor block recovery were compared between groups. Both groups were comparable in demographic data, VAS scores, peak sensory block height, time for sensory regression to T10, and lowest SBP recorded. Patients in the EVE group demonstrated significantly faster motor recovery to modified Bromage 0 (73 +/- 33 min versus 136 +/- 32 min, P < 0.05). IMPLICATIONS: When compared with conventional, single-shot spinal anesthesia, epidural volume extension of a small-dose spinal block provides satisfactory anesthesia for cesarean delivery with only 55% of the bupivacaine dose required and is associated with faster motor recovery of the lower limbs.


Thorén et al 1994

Sequential combined spinal epidural block versus spinal block for cesarean section: effects on maternal hypotension and neurobehavioral function of the newborn.

Thorén T, Holmström B, Rawal N, Schollin J, Lindeberg S, Skeppner G.

Anesth Analg. 1994 Jun;78(6):1087-92.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8198262


Ng et al 2004

Spinal versus epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section.

Ng K, Parsons J, Cyna A, Middleton P.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;2:CD003765.

BACKGROUND: Regional anaesthesia (spinal or epidural anaesthesia) for caesarean section is the preferred option when balancing risks and benefits to the mother and her fetus. Spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section is thought to be advantageous due to simplicity of technique, rapid administration and onset of anaesthesia, reduced risk of systemic toxicity and increased density of spinal anaesthetic block. OBJECTIVES: To assess the relative efficacy and side-effects of spinal versus epidural anaesthesia in women having caesarean section. SEARCH STRATEGY: The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (February 2003) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2003). SELECTION CRITERIA: Types of studies considered for review include all published randomised controlled trials involving a comparison of spinal with epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviewers independently assessed trials for inclusion. Review Manager software was used for calculation of the treatment effect represented by relative risk (RR) and weighted mean difference (WMD) using a random effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CI). MAIN RESULTS: Ten trials (751 women) met our inclusion criteria. No difference was found between spinal and epidural techniques with regards to failure rate (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.23 to 4.24; four studies), need for additional intraoperative analgesia (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.32; five studies), need for conversion to general anaesthesia intraoperatively, maternal satisfaction, need for postoperative pain relief and neonatal intervention. Women receiving spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section showed reduced time from start of the anaesthetic to start of the operation (WMD 7.91 minutes less (95% CI -11.59 to -4.23; four studies), but increased need for treatment of hypotension RR 1.23 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.51; six studies). REVIEWERS' CONCLUSIONS: Both spinal and epidural techniques are shown to provide effective anaesthesia for caesarean section. Both techniques are associated with moderate degrees of maternal satisfaction. Spinal anaesthesia has a shorter onset time, but treatment for hypotension is more likely if spinal anaesthesia is used. No conclusions can be drawn about intraoperative side-effects and postoperative complications because they were of low incidence and/or not reported.


Paraskeva et al 2012

Postoperative analgesic requirements after subarachnoid or epidural anesthesia with ropivacaine 0.75% in cesarean section. A double-blind randomized trial.

Paraskeva A, Diamantis M, Petropoulos G, Siafaka I, Fassoulaki A.

Curr Med Res Opin. 2012 Sep;28(9):1497-504.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22937725


Afolabi and Lesi 2012

Regional versus general anaesthesia for caesarean section

Afolabi BB, Lesi FE.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 2012. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004350.pub3.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23076903


McDonnell et al 2010

A randomised comparison of regular oral oxycodone and intrathecal morphine for post-caesarean analgesia.

McDonnell NJ, Paech MJ, Browning RM, Nathan EA.

Int J Obstet Anesth. 2010 Jan;19(1):16-23

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19700304


Abouleish et al 1988

Combined intrathecal morphine and bupivacaine for cesarean section

Abouleish E, Rawal N, Fallon K, Hernandez D.

Anesth Analg 1988;67(4):370-374.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3354872


Girgin et al 2008

Intrathecal morphine in anesthesia for cesarean delivery: dose-response relationship for combinations of low-dose intrathecal morphine and spinal bupivacaine.

Girgin NK, Gurbet A, Turker G, Aksu H, Gulhan N.

J Clin Anesth. 2008 May;20(3):180-5

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18502360


Mikuni et al 2010

Efficacy of intrathecal morphine with epidural ropivacaine infusion for postcesarean analgesia.

Mikuni I, Hirai H, Toyama Y, Takahata O, Iwasaki H.

J Clin Anesth. 2010 Jun;22(4):268-73

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20522357


Swart et al 1997

Intrathecal morphine for caesarean section: an assessment of pain relief, satisfaction and side-effects.

Swart M, Sewell J, Thomas D.

Anaesthesia. 1997 Apr;52(4):373-7.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9135193


Terajima et al 2003

Efficacy of intrathecal morphine for analgesia following elective cesarean section: comparison with previous delivery.

Terajima K, Onodera H, Kobayashi M, Yamanaka H, Ohno T, Konuma S, Ogawa R.

J Nippon Med Sch. 2003 Aug;70(4):327-33.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12928713


Abboud et al 1988

Mini-dose intrathecal morphine for the relief of post-cesarean section pain: safety, efficacy, and ventilatory responses to carbon dioxide

Abboud TK, Dror A, Mosaad P, Zhu J, Mantilla M, Swart F, Gangolly J, Silao P, Makar A, Moore J, et al.

Anesth Analg 1988;67(2):137-143

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3277478


Draisci et al 2009

Safety and effectiveness of coadministration of intrathecal sufentanil and morphine in hyperbaric bupivacaine-based spinal anesthesia for cesarean section.

Draisci G, Frassanito L, Pinto R, Zanfini B, Ferrandina G, Valente A.

J Opioid Manag. 2009 Jul-Aug;5(4):197-202.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19736899


Unlugenc et al 2012

A comparative study on the effects of intrathecal morphine added to levobupivacaine for spinal anesthesia.

Unlugenc H, Gunduz M, Guzel B, Isik G.

J Opioid Manag. 2012 Mar-Apr;8(2):105-13.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22616316


Caranza et al 1999

Central neuraxial opioid analgesia after caesarean section: comparison of epidural diamorphine and intrathecal morphine.

Caranza R, Jeyapalan I, Buggy DJ.

Int J Obstet Anesth 1999;8(2):90-93.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15321151


Paech et al 2000

Postoperative intraspinal opioid analgesia after caesarean section; a randomised comparison of subarachnoid morphine and epidural pethidine.

Paech MJ, Pavy TJ, Orlikowski CE, Kuh J, Yeo ST, Lim K, Evans SF.

Int J Obstet Anesth. 2000 Oct;9(4):238-45.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15321077


Dualé et al 2003

Epidural versus intrathecal morphine for postoperative analgesia after Caesarean section.

Dualé C, Frey C, Bolandard F, Barrière A, Schoeffler P.

Br J Anaesth. 2003 Nov;91(5):690-4.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14570792


Sarvela et al 2002

A double-blinded, randomized comparison of intrathecal and epidural morphine for elective cesarean delivery.

Sarvela J, Halonen P, Soikkeli A, Korttila K

Anesth Analg. 2002 Aug;95(2):436-40

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12145067


Chung et al 1998

The efficacy of intrathecal neostigmine, intrathecal morphine, and their combination for post-cesarean section analgesia.

Chung CJ, Kim JS, Park HS, Chin YJ.

Anesth Analg. 1998 Aug;87(2):341-6.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9706928


Culebras et al 2000

Advantages of intrathecal nalbuphine, compared with intrathecal morphine, after cesarean delivery: an evaluation of postoperative analgesia and adverse effects.

Culebras X, Gaggero G, Zatloukal J, Kern C, Marti RA.

Anesth Analg. 2000 Sep;91(3):601-5.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10960384


Siti Salmah and Choy 2009

Comparison of morphine with fentanyl added to intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine for analgesia after caesarean section.

Siti Salmah G, Choy YC.

Med J Malaysia. 2009 Mar;64(1):71-4.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19852327


Barkshire et al 2001

A comparison of bupivacaine-fentanyl-morphine with bupivacaine-fentanyl-diamorphine for caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia.

Barkshire K, Russell R, Burry J, Popat M.

Int J Obstet Anesth 2001;10(1):4-10.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15321645


Milner et al 1996

Intrathecal administration of morphine for elective Caesarean section. A comparison between 0.1 mg and 0.2 mg.

Milner AR, Bogod DG, Harwood RJ.

Anaesthesia. 1996 Sep;51(9):871-3.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8882255


Carvalho et al 2012

Intrathecal fentanyl added to bupivacaine and morphine for cesarean delivery may induce a subtle acute opioid tolerance.

Carvalho B, Drover DR, Ginosar Y, Cohen SE, Riley ET.

Int J Obstet Anesth. 2012 Jan;21(1):29-34

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22100823


Cardoso et al 1998

Small doses of intrathecal morphine combined with systemic diclofenac for postoperative pain control after cesarean delivery.

Cardoso MM, Carvalho JC, Amaro AR, Prado AA, Cappelli EL.

Anesth Analg 1998;86(3):538-541.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9495409


Choi et al 2003

Dextromethorphan and intrathecal morphine for analgesia after Caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia.

Choi DM, Kliffer AP, Douglas MJ.

Br J Anaesth. 2003 May;90(5):653-8.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12697594


Cohen et al 1996

Ketorolac and spinal morphine for postcesarean analgesia.

Cohen SE, Desai JB, Ratner EF, Riley ET, Halpern J.

Int J Obstet Anesth. 1996 Jan;5(1):14-8.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15321377


Khezri et al 2013

Evaluation of the analgesic effect of ketamine as an additive to intrathecal bupivacaine in patients undergoing cesarean section.

Khezri MB, Ghasemi J, Mohammadi N.

Acta Anaesthesiol Taiwan. 2013 Dec;51(4):155-60.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24529671


Unlugenc et al 2006

A double-blind comparison of intrathecal S(+) ketamine and fentanyl combined with bupivacaine 0.5% for Caesarean delivery.

Unlugenc H, Ozalevli M, Gunes Y, Olguner S, Evrüke C, Ozcengiz D, Akman H.

Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2006 Dec;23(12):1018-24.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16824240


Binsted 1983

Epidural morphine after caesarean section.

Binsted RJ.

Anaesth Intensive Care 1983;11(2):130-134.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6869775


Bonnet et al 2010

Analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of epidural morphine compared to parenteral opioids after elective caesarean section: a systematic review.

Bonnet MP, Mignon A, Mazoit JX, Ozier Y, Marret E.

Eur J Pain 2010;14(9):894.e1-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20381390


Camann et al 1992

Does epidural administration of butorphanol offer any clinical advantage over the intravenous route? A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Camann WR, Loferski BL, Fanciullo GJ, Stone ML, Datta S.

Anesthesiology 1992;76(2):216-220

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1736698


Cohen and Woods 1983

The role of epidural morphine in the postcesarean patient: efficacy and effects on bonding.

Cohen SE, Woods WA.

Anesthesiology. 1983 Jun;58(6):500-4.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6344699


Cohen et al 2002

The primary action of epidural fentanyl after cesarean delivery is via a spinal mechanism.

Cohen S, Pantuck CB, Amar D, Burley E, Pantuck EJ.

Anesth Analg. 2002 Mar;94(3):674-9

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11867396


Cooper et al 1995

Extradural fentanyl for postoperative analgesia: predominant spinal or systemic action?

Cooper DW, Ryall DM, Desira WR.

Br J Anaesth. 1995 Feb;74(2):184-7.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7696069


Cooper et al 1999

Patient-controlled analgesia: epidural fentanyl and i.v. morphine compared after caesarean section.

Cooper DW, Saleh U, Taylor M, Whyte S, Ryall D, Kokri MS, Desira WR, Day H, McArthur E.

Br J Anaesth. 1999 Mar;82(3):366-70.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10434817


Daley et al 1990

A comparison of epidural and intramuscular morphine in patients following cesarean section.

Daley MD, Sandler AN, Turner KE, Vosu H, Slavchenko P.

Anesthesiology. 1990 Feb;72(2):289-94.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2405743


Grass et al 1994

Patient-controlled analgesia after cesarean delivery: Epidural sufentanil versus intravenous morphine

Grass JA, Zuckerman RL, Sakima NT, Harris AP.

Regional Anesthesia, 1994;19(2):90-97

http://journals.lww.com/rapm/Abstract/1994/19020/Patient_controlled_Analgesia_After_Cesarean.3.aspx


Ngan Kee et al 1997

Comparison of patient-controlled epidural analgesia with patient-controlled intravenous analgesia using pethidine or fentanyl.

Ngan Kee WD, Lam KK, Chen PP, Gin T.

Anaesth Intensive Care. 1997 Apr;25(2):126-32.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9127653


Paech et al 1994

Meperidine for patient-controlled analgesia after cesarean section. Intravenous versus epidural administration.

Paech MJ, Moore JS, Evans SF.

Anesthesiology. 1994 Jun;80(6):1268-76.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8010473


Perriss et al 1990

Analgesia following extradural and i.m. pethidine in post-caesarean section patients.

Perriss BW, Latham BV, Wilson IH.

Br J Anaesth. 1990 Mar;64(3):355-7.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2183864


Stevens et al 1991

Double-blind comparison of epidural diamorphine and intramuscular morphine after elective caesarean section, with computerised analysis of continuous pulse oximetry.

Stevens JD, Braithwaite P, Corke CF, Madej TH, Wheatley RG.

Anaesthesia. 1991 Apr;46(4):256-9.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2024740


Stoddart et al 1993

A comparison of epidural diamorphine with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia using the Baxter infusor following caesarean section.

Stoddart PA, Cooper A, Russell R, Reynolds F.

Anaesthesia. 1993 Dec;48(12):1086-90.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8285333


Sun et al 1992

Combination of low-dose epidural morphine and intramuscular diclofenac sodium in postcesarean analgesia.

Sun HL, Wu CC, Lin MS, Chang CF, Mok MS.

Anesth Analg. 1992 Jul;75(1):64-8.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1616164


Yarnell et al 1992

Patient-controlled analgesia with epidural meperidine after elective cesarean section.

Yarnell RW, Polis T, Reid GN, Murphy IL, Penning JP.

Reg Anesth. 1992 Nov-Dec;17(6):329-33.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1286054


Agarwal et al 2010

Comparative analgesic efficacy of buprenorphine or clonidine with bupivacaine in the caesarean section.

Agarwal K, Agarwal N, Agrawal V, Agarwal A, Sharma M, Agarwal K.

Indian J Anaesth 2010;54(5):453-457

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21189885


Buggy et al 2000

Motor block during patient-controlled epidural analgesia with ropivacaine or ropivacaine/fentanyl after intrathecal bupivacaine for caesarean section.

Buggy DJ, Hall NA, Shah J, Brown J, Williams J.

Br J Anaesth 2000;85(3):468-470.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11103193


Cooper et al 1996

Patient-controlled extradural analgesia with bupivacaine, fentanyl, or a mixture of both, after Caesarean section.

Cooper DW, Ryall DM, McHardy FE, Lindsay SL, Eldabe SS.

Br J Anaesth. 1996 May;76(5):611-5.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8688256


Chen et al 2011

Patient -controlled epidural ropivacaine as a post-Cesarean analgesia: a comparison with epidural morphine.

Chen LK, Lin PL, Lin CJ, Huang CH, Liu WC, Fan SZ, Wang MH.

Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Dec;50(4):441-6.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22212315


Abboud et al 1987

Epidural butorphanol or morphine for the relief of post-cesarean section pain: ventilatory responses to carbon dioxide

Abboud TK, Moore M, Zhu J, Murakawa K, Minehart M, Longhitano M, Terrasi J, Klepper ID, Choi Y, Kimball S, et al.

Anesth Analg 1987;66(9):887-893

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3113291


Ackerman et al 1989

A comparison of the incidence of pruritus following epidural opioid administration in the parturient

Ackerman WE, Juneja MM, Kaczorowski DM, Colclough GW.

Can J Anaesth 1989;36(4):388-391.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2569364


Bansal et al 2009

Comparison of epidural butorphanol and sufentanil for post- caesarean section analgesia

Bansal A, Khan MP, Kohli M, Malik A, Singh S, Qureshi S

Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology 2009;25(4):473-476

Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology 2009;25(4):473-476


Blanco et al 1987

Epidural analgesia for post-caesarean pain relief: a comparison between morphine and fentanyl.

Blanco J, Blanco E, Carceller JM, Sarabia A, Solares G.

Eur J Anaesthesiol 1987;4(6):395-399.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3328681


Dottrens et al 1992

Comparison of extradural administration of sufentanil, morphine and sufentanil-morphine combination after caesarean section.

Dottrens M, Rifat K, Morel DR.

Br J Anaesth. 1992 Jul;69(1):9-12.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1386224


Rosaeg et al 1994

Epidural opioid analgesia after caesarean section: a comparison of patient-controlled analgesia with meperidine and single bolus injection of morphine.

Rosaeg OP, Lindsay MP.

Can J Anaesth. 1994 Nov;41(11):1063-8.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7828253


Sharar et al 1991

A comparison of postcesarean epidural morphine analgesia by single injection and by continuous infusion.

Sharar SR, Ready LB, Ross BK, Chadwick HS, Sudy DJ.

Reg Anesth. 1991 Jul-Aug;16(4):232-5.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1911501


Vercauteren et al 1995

Epidural sufentanil for postoperative patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with or without background infusion: a double-blind comparison.

Vercauteren MP, Coppejans HC, ten Broecke PW, Van Steenberge AL, Adriaensen HA.

Anesth Analg. 1995 Jan;80(1):76-80.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7802305


Yu and Gambling 1993

A comparative study of patient-controlled epidural fentanyl and single dose epidural morphine for post-caesarean analgesia.

Yu PY, Gambling DR.

Can J Anaesth. 1993 May;40(5 Pt 1):416-20.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8513520


Eisenach et al 1994

An isobolographic study of epidural clonidine and fentanyl after cesarean section.

Eisenach JC, D'Angelo R, Taylor C, Hood DD.

Anesth Analg. 1994 Aug;79(2):285-90.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7639365


Kainu et al 2012

Continuous wound infusion with ropivacaine fails to provide adequate analgesia after caesarean section.

Kainu JP, Sarvela J, Halonen P, Puro H, Toivonen HJ, Halmesmäki E, Korttila KT.

Int J Obstet Anesth. 2012 Apr;21(2):119-24

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22341892


Filos et al 1994

Hemodynamic and analgesic profile after intrathecal clonidine in humans. A dose-response study.

Filos KS, Goudas LC, Patroni O, Polyzou V.

Anesthesiology. 1994 Sep;81(3):591-601

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8092504


Mendez et al 1990

Epidural clonidine analgesia after cesarean section.

Mendez R, Eisenach JC, Kashtan K.

Anesthesiology. 1990 Nov;73(5):848-52.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2240674


Benhamou et al 1998

Intrathecal clonidine and fentanyl with hyperbaric bupivacaine improves analgesia during cesarean section

Benhamou D, Thorin D, Brichant JF, Dailland P, Milon D, Schneider M.

Anesth Analg 1998;87(3):609-613.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9728839


Filos et al 1992

Intrathecal clonidine as a sole analgesic for pain relief after cesarean section.

Filos KS, Goudas LC, Patroni O, Polyzou V.

Anesthesiology. 1992 Aug;77(2):267-74.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1642346


Lavand'homme et al 2008

An evaluation of the postoperative antihyperalgesic and analgesic effects of intrathecal clonidine administered during elective cesarean delivery.

Lavand'homme PM, Roelants F, Waterloos H, Collet V, De Kock MF.

Anesth Analg. 2008 Sep;107(3):948-55.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18713912


Paech et al 2004

Postcesarean analgesia with spinal morphine, clonidine, or their combination.

Paech MJ, Pavy TJ, Orlikowski CE, Yeo ST, Banks SL, Evans SF, Henderson J.

Anesth Analg. 2004 May;98(5):1460-6

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15105231


Singh et al 2013

The effect of addition of intrathecal clonidine to hyperbaric bupivacaine on postoperative pain after lower segment caesarean section: A randomized control trial.

Singh R, Gupta D, Jain A.

Saudi J Anaesth. 2013 Jul;7(3):283-90

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24015131


van Tuijl et al 2006

The effect of addition of intrathecal clonidine to hyperbaric bupivacaine on postoperative pain and morphine requirements after Caesarean section: a randomized controlled trial.

van Tuijl I, van Klei WA, van der Werff DB, Kalkman CJ.

Br J Anaesth. 2006 Sep;97(3):365-70.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16861258


Hofmeyr et al 2008

Techniques for caesarean section.

Hofmeyr GJ, Mathai M, Shah A, Novikova N.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD004662.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18254057


Abuelghar et al 2013

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