Thoracotomy included references

Thoracotomy included references

1. Aguilar JL, Rincon R, Domingo V, Espachs P, Preciado MJ, Vidal F. Absence of an early pre-emptive effect after thoracic extradural bupivacaine in thoracic surgery. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1996;76(1):72-6.

2. Akcali Y, Demir H, Tezcan B. The effect of standard posterolateral versus muscle-sparing thoracotomy on multiple parameters. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 2003;76(4):1050-4.

3. Asantila R, Rosenberg PH, Scheinin B. Comparison of different methods of postoperative analgesia after thoracotomy. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 1986;30(6):421-5.

4. Aykac B, Erolcay H, Dikmen Y, Oz H, Yillar O. Comparison of intrapleural versus intravenous morphine for postthoracotomy pain management. Journal of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia 1995;9(5):538-40.

5. Azad SC, Groh J, Beyer A, Schneck D, Dreher E, Peter K. Continuous epidural analgesia versus patient controlled intravenous analgesia for postthoracotomy pain. Acute Pain 2000;3(2):84-93.

6. Bachmann-Mennenga B, Biscoping J, Kuhn DF, Schurg R, Ryan B, Erkens U, Hempelmann G. Intercostal nerve block, interpleural analgesia, thoracic epidural block or systemic opioid application for pain relief after thoracotomy?[see comment]. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 1993;7(1):12-8.

7. Baron CM, Kowalski SE, Greengrass R, Horan TA, Unruh HW, Baron CL. Epinephrine decreases postoperative requirements for continuous thoracic epidural fentanyl infusions. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1996;82(4):760-5.

8. Barron DJ, Tolan MJ, Lea RE. A randomized controlled trial of continuous extra-pleural analgesia post-thoracotomy: efficacy and choice of local anaesthetic. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 1999;16(4):236-45.

9. Baxter AD, Samson B, Penning J, Doran R, Dube LM. Prevention of epidural morphine-induced respiratory depression with intravenous nalbuphine infusion in post-thoracotomy patients. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 1989;36(5):503-9.

10. Baxter AD, Laganiere S, Samson B, McGilveray IJ, Hull K. A dose-response study of nalbuphine for posthoracotomy epidural analgesia. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 1991;38(2):175-182.

11. Baxter AD, Laganiere S, Samson B, Stewart J, Hull K, Goernert L. A comparison of lumbar epidural and intravenous fentanyl infusions for post-thoracotomy analgesia.[see comment]. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 1994;41(3):184-91.

12. Benzon HT, Wong HY, Belavic AM, Jr., Goodman I, Mitchell D, Lefheit T, Locicero J. A randomized double-blind comparison of epidural fentanyl infusion versus patient-controlled analgesia with morphine for postthoracotomy pain. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1993;76(2):316-22.

13. Berrisford RG, Sabanathan SS, Mearns AJ, Bickford-Smith PJ. Pulmonary complications after lung resection: the effect of continuous extrapleural intercostal nerve block. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 1990;4(8):407-10; discussion 411.

14. Bigler D, Moller J, Kamp-Jensen M, Berthelsen P, Hjortso NC, Kehlet H. Effect of piroxicam in addition to continuous thoracic epidural bupivacaine and morphine on postoperative pain and lung function after thoracotomy.[see comment]. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 1992;36(7):647-50.

15. Bigler D, Jonsson T, Olsen J, Brenoe J, Sander-Jensen K. The effect of preoperative methylprednisolone on pulmonary function and pain after lung operations. Journal of Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery 1996;112(1):142-5.

16. Bilgin M, Akcali Y, Oguzkaya F. Extrapleural regional versus systemic analgesia for relieving postthoracotomy pain: a clinical study of bupivacaine compared with metamizol. Journal of Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery 2003;126(5):1580-3.

17. Bimston DN, McGee JP, Liptay MJ, Fry WA. Continuous paravertebral extrapleural infusion for post-thoracotomy pain management. Surgery 1999;126(4):650-6; discussion 656-7.

18. Blanloeil Y, Bizouarn P, Le Teurnier Y, Le Roux C, Rigal JC, Sellier E, Nougarede B. Postoperative analgesia by epidural methylprednisolone after posterolateral thoracotomy.[see comment]. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2001;87(4):635-8.

19. Bloch MB, Dyer RA, Heijke SA, James MF. Tramadol infusion for postthoracotomy pain relief: a placebo-controlled comparison with epidural morphine.[see comment]. Anesthesia & Analgesia 2002;94(3):523-8; table of contents.

20. Boisseau N, Rabary O, Padovani B, Staccini P, Mouroux J, Grimaud D, Raucoules-Aime M. Improvement of ‘dynamic analgesia’ does not decrease atelectasis after thoracotomy. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2001;87(4):564-9.

21. Bouchard F, Drolet P. Thoracic versus lumbar administration of fentanyl using patient-controlled epidural after thoracotomy. Regional Anesthesia 1995;20(5):385-8.

22. Boulanger A, Choiniere M, Roy D, Boure B, Chartrand D, Choquette R, Rousseau P. Comparison between patient-controlled analgesia and intramuscular meperidine after thoracotomy. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 1993;40(5 Pt 1):409-15.

23. Brichon PY, Pison C, Chaffanjon P, Fayot P, Buchberger M, Neron L, Bocca A, Verdier J, Sarrazin R. Comparison of epidural analgesia and cryoanalgesia in thoracic surgery. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery 1994;8(9):482-6.

24. Brockmeier V, Moen H, Karlsson BR, Fjeld NB, Reiestad F, Steen PA. Interpleural or thoracic epidural analgesia for pain after thoracotomy. A double blind study. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 1994;38(4):317-21.

25. Broome IJ, Sherry KM, Reilly CS. A combined chest drain and intrapleural catheter for post-thoracotomy pain relief.[see comment]. Anaesthesia 1993;48(8):724-6.

26. Burgess FW, Anderson DM, Colonna D, Cavanaugh DG. Thoracic epidural analgesia with bupivacaine and fentanyl for postoperative thoracotomy pain. Journal of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia 1994;8(4):420-4.

27. Carabine UA, Gilliland H, Johnston JR, McGuigan J. Pain relief for thoracotomy. Comparison of morphine requirements using an extrapleural infusion of bupivacaine. Regional Anesthesia 1995;20(5):412-7.

28. Carretta A, Zannini P, Chiesa G, Altese R, Melloni G, Grossi A. Efficacy of ketorolac tromethamine and extrapleural intercostal nerve block on post-thoracotomy pain. A prospective, randomized study.[see comment]. International Surgery 1996;81(3):224-8.

29. Catala E, Casas JI, Unzueta MC, Diaz X, Aliaga L, Villar Landeira JM. Continuous infusion is superior to bolus doses with thoracic paravertebral blocks after thoracotomies. Journal of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia 1996;10(5):586-8.

30. Cerfolio RJ, Bryant AS, Bass CS, Bartolucci AA. A prospective, double-blinded, randomized trial evaluating the use of preemptive analgesia of the skin before thoracotomy. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 2003;76(4):1055-8.

31. Chan VW, Chung F, Cheng DC, Seyone C, Chung A, Kirby TJ. Analgesic and pulmonary effects of continuous intercostal nerve block following thoracotomy.[see comment]. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 1991;38(6):733-9.

32. Coe A, Sarginson R, Smith MW, Donnelly RJ, Russell GN. Pain following thoracotomy. A randomised, double-blind comparison of lumbar versus thoracic epidural fentanyl. Anaesthesia 1991;46(11):918-21.

33. Cohen E, Neustein SM. Intrathecal morphine during thoracotomy, Part I: Effect on intraoperative enflurane requirements. Journal of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia 1993;7(2):154-6.

34. Dauphin A, Lubanska-Hubert E, Young JE, Miller JD, Bennett WF, Fuller HD. Comparative study of continuous extrapleural intercostal nerve block and lumbar epidural morphine in post-thoracotomy pain. Canadian Journal of Surgery 1997;40(6):431-6.

35. De Cosmo G, Aceto P, Campanale E, Congedo E, Clemente A, Mascia A, Granone P. Comparison between epidural and paravertebral intercostal nerve block with ropivacaine after thoracotomy: Effects on pain relief, pulmonary function and patient satisfaction. Acta Medica Romana 2002;40(4):340-347.

36. Debreceni G, Molnar Z, Szelig L, Molnar TF. Continuous epidural or intercostal analgesia following thoracotomy: a prospective randomized double-blind clinical trial. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 2003;47(9):1091-5.

37. Della Rocca G, Coccia C, Pompei L, Costa MG, Pierconti F, Di Marco P, Tommaselli E, Pietropaoli P. Post-thoracotomy analgesia: epidural vs intravenous morphine continuous infusion. Minerva Anestesiologica 2002;68(9):681-93.

38. Deneuville M, Bisserier A, Regnard JF, Chevalier M, Levasseur P, Herve P. Continuous intercostal analgesia with 0.5% bupivacaine after thoracotomy: a randomized study. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 1993;55(2):381-5.

39. Dich-Nielsen JO, Svendsen LB, Berthelsen P. Intramuscular low-dose ketamine versus pethidine for postoperative pain treatment after thoracic surgery. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 1992;36(6):583-7.

40. Doyle E, Bowler GM. Pre-emptive effect of multimodal analgesia in thoracic surgery. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1998;80(2):147-51.

41. Dryden CM, McMenemin I, Duthie DJ. Efficacy of continuous intercostal bupivacaine for pain relief after thoracotomy.[see comment]. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1993;70(5):508-10.

42. El-Baz NM, Faber LP, Jensik RJ. Continuous epidural infusion of morphine for treatment of pain after thoracic surgery: a new technique. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1984;63(8):757-64.

43. Elman A, Debaene B, Magny-Metrot C, Murciano G. Interpleural analgesia with bupivacaine following thoracotomy: ineffective results of a controlled study and pharmacokinetics. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia 1993;5(2):118-21.

44. Eng J, Sabanathan S. Continuous extrapleural intercostal nerve block and post-thoracotomy pulmonary complications. Scandinavian Journal of Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery 1992;26(3):219-23.

45. Erolcay H, Yuceyar L. Intravenous patient-controlled analgesia after thoracotomy: a comparison of morphine with tramadol. European Journal of Anaesthesiology 2003;20(2):141-6.

46. Etches RC, Sandler AN, Lawson SL. A comparison of the analgesic and respiratory effects of epidural nalbuphine or morphine in postthoracotomy patients. Anesthesiology 1991;75(1):9-14.

47. Etches RC, Gammer TL, Cornish R. Patient-controlled epidural analgesia after thoracotomy: a comparison of meperidine with and without bupivacaine. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1996;83(1):81-6.

48. Ferrante FM, Chan VW, Arthur GR, Rocco AG. Interpleural analgesia after thoracotomy. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1991;72(1):105-9.

49. Gaeta RR, Macario A, Brodsky JB, Brock-Utne JG, Mark JB. Pain outcomes after thoracotomy: lumbar epidural hydromorphone versus intrapleural bupivacaine. Journal of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia 1995;9(5):534-7.

50. Gamal G, Soliman AH, Mohamed A-R. Paravertebral ropivacaine for post-thoracotomy analgesia: A dose finding study. Egyptian Journal of Anaesthesia 2003;19(4):411-416.

51. George KA, Wright PM, Chisakuta A. Continuous thoracic epidural fentanyl for post-thoracotomy pain relief: with or without bupivacaine? Anaesthesia 1991;46(9):732-6.

52. Geurts AM, Jessen HJ, Megens JH, Hasenbos MA, Gielen MJ. Continuous high thoracic epidural administration of morphine with bupivacaine after thoracotomy. Regional Anesthesia 1995;20(1):27-32.

53. Gough JD, Williams AB, Vaughan RS, Khalil JF, Butchart EG. The control of post-thoracotomy pain. A comparative evaluation of thoracic epidural fentanyl infusions and cryo-analgesia.[see comment]. Anaesthesia 1988;43(9):780-3.

54. Grant GJ, Zakowski M, Ramanathan S, Boyd A, Turndorf H. Thoracic versus lumbar administration of epidural morphine for postoperative analgesia after thoracotomy. Regional Anesthesia 1993;18(6):351-5.

55. Grant RP, Dolman JF, Harper JA, White SA, Parsons DG, Evans KG, Merrick CP. Patient-controlled lumbar epidural fentanyl compared with patient-controlled intravenous fentanyl for post-thoracotomy pain. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 1992;39(3):214-9.

56. Guinard JP, Mavrocordatos P, Chiolero R, Carpenter RL. A randomized comparison of intravenous versus lumbar and thoracic epidural fentanyl for analgesia after thoracotomy.[see comment]. Anesthesiology 1992;77(6):1108-15.

57. Guo X, Li Y, Ye T, Ren H, Huang Y, Luo A. Clinical study of patient-controlled epidural analgesia with tetracaine hydrochloride after pulmonary lobectomy. Chinese Medical Sciences Journal 2003;18(1):54-58.

58. Hansdottir V, Bake B, Nordberg G. The analgesic efficacy and adverse effects of continuous epidural sufentanil and bupivacaine infusion after thoracotomy. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1996;83(2):394-400.

59. Harbers JB, Hasenbos MA, Gort C, Folgering H, Dirksen R, Gielen MJ. Ventilatory function and continuous high thoracic epidural administration of bupivacaine with sufentanil intravenously or epidurally: a double-blind comparison. Regional Anesthesia 1991;16(2):65-71.

60. Hasenbos M, Simon M, van Egmond J, Folgering H, van Hoorn P. Postoperative analgesia by nicomorphine intramuscularly versus high thoracic epidural administration. Effects on ventilatory and airway occlusion pressure responses to CO2. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 1986;30(6):426-30.

61. Hasenbos MA, Gielen MJM, Bos J, Tielbeek E, M DAS-H, Van Egmond J. High thoracic epidural sufentanil for post-thoracotomy pain: influence of epinephrine as a adjuvant – A double blind study. Anesthesiology 1988;69(6):1017-1022.

62. Hazelrigg SR, Landreneau RJ, Boley TM, Priesmeyer M, Schmaltz RA, Nawarawong W, Johnson JA, Walls JT, Curtis JJ. The effect of muscle-sparing versus standard posterolateral thoracotomy on pulmonary function, muscle strength, and postoperative pain. Journal of Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery 1991;101(3):394-400; discussion 400-1.

63. Hurford WE, Dutton RP, Alfille PH, Clement D, Wilson RS. Comparison of thoracic and lumbar epidural infusions of bupivacaine and fentanyl for post-thoracotomy analgesia. Journal of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia 1993;7(5):521-5.

64. Jacobson L, Phillips PD, Hull CJ, Conacher ID. Extradural versus intramuscular diamorphine. A controlled study of analgesic and adverse effects in the postoperative period. Anaesthesia 1983;38(1):10-8.

65. Jain PN, Sandhya, Chattopadhyay G, Dasgupta D. Combination of epidural buprenorphine and intramuscular ketorolac for post thoracotomy pain. Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology 1998;14(2):129-134.

66. James MF, Heijke SA, Gordon PC. Intravenous tramadol versus epidural morphine for postthoracotomy pain relief: a placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1996;83(1):87-91.

67. Kaiser AM, Zollinger A, De Lorenzi D, Largiader F, Weder W. Prospective, randomized comparison of extrapleural versus epidural analgesia for postthoracotomy pain. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 1998;66(2):367-72.

68. Kambam JR, Hammon J, Parris WC, Lupinetti FM. Intrapleural analgesia for post-thoracotomy pain and blood levels of bupivacaine following intrapleural injection. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 1989;36(2):106-9.

69. Kaplan JA, Miller ED, Jr., gallagher EG, Jr. Postoperative analgesia for thoracotomy patients. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1975;54(6):773-7.

70. Katz J, Nelson W, Forest R, Bruce DL. Cryoanalgesia for post-thoracotomy pain. Lancet 1980;1(8167):512-3.

71. Katz J, Kavanagh BP, Sandler AN, Nierenberg H, Boylan JF, Friedlander M, Shaw BF. Preemptive analgesia. Clinical evidence of neuroplasticity contributing to postoperative pain.[see comment]. Anesthesiology 1992;77(3):439-46.

72. Kavanagh BP, Katz J, Sandler AN, Nierenberg H, Roger S, Boylan JF, Laws AK. Multimodal analgesia before thoracic surgery does not reduce postoperative pain.[see comment]. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1994;73(2):184-9.

73. Keenan DJ, Cave K, Langdon L, Lea RE. Comparative trial of rectal indomethacin and cryoanalgesia for control of early postthoracotomy pain. British Medical Journal Clinical Research Ed 1983;287(6402):1335-7.

74. Larsen VH, Christensen P, Brinklov MM, Axelsen F. Postoperative pain relief and respiratory performance after thoracotomy: a controlled trial comparing the effect of epidural morphine and subcutaneous nicomorphine. Danish Medical Bulletin 1986;33(3):161-4.

75. Laveaux MM, Hasenbos MA, Harbers JB, Liem T. Thoracic epidural bupivacaine plus sufentanil: high concentration/low volume versus low concentration/high volume. Regional Anesthesia 1993;18(1):39-43.

76. Lehmann KA, Grond S, Freier J, Zech D. Postoperative pain management and respiratory depression after thoracotomy: a comparison of intramuscular piritramide and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia using fentanyl or buprenorphine. Journal of Clinical Anesthesia 1991;3(3):194-201.

77. Lemmer JH, Jr., Gomez MN, Symreng T, Ross AF, Rossi NP. Limited lateral thoracotomy. Improved postoperative pulmonary function. Archives of Surgery 1990;125(7):873-7.

78. Licker M, Spiliopoulos A, Tschopp JM. Influence of thoracic epidural analgesia on cardiovascular autonomic control after thoracic surgery. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2003;91(4):525-31.

79. Liu M, Rock P, Grass JA, Heitmiller RF, Parker SJ, Sakima NT, Webb MD, Gorman RB, Beattie C. Double-blind randomized evaluation of intercostal nerve blocks as an adjuvant to subarachnoid administered morphine for post-thoracotomy analgesia. Regional Anesthesia 1995a;20(5):418-25.

80. Liu N, Kuhlman G, Dalibon N, Moutafis M, Levron JC, Fischler M. A randomized, double-blinded comparison of intrathecal morphine, sufentanil and their combination versus IV morphine patient-controlled analgesia for postthoracotomy pain.[see comment]. Anesthesia & Analgesia 2001;92(1):31-6.

81. Liu S, Angel JM, Owens BD, Carpenter RL, Isabel L. Effects of epidural bupivacaine after thoracotomy. Regional Anesthesia 1995b;20(4):303-10.

82. Logas WG, el-Baz N, el-Ganzouri A, Cullen M, Staren E, Faber LP, Ivankovich AD. Continuous thoracic epidural analgesia for postoperative pain relief following thoracotomy: a randomized prospective study. Anesthesiology 1987;67(5):787-91.

83. Macias A, Monedero P, Adame M, Torre W, Fidalgo I, Hidalgo F. A randomized, double-blinded comparison of thoracic epidural ropivacaine, ropivacaine/fentanyl, or bupivacaine/fentanyl for postthoracotomy analgesia. Anesthesia & Analgesia 2002;95(5):1344-50, table of contents.

84. Mahon SV, Berry PD, Jackson M, Russell GN, Pennefather SH. Thoracic epidural infusions for post-thoracotomy pain: a comparison of fentanyl-bupivacaine mixtures vs. fentanyl alone. Anaesthesia 1999;54(7):641-6.

85. Mann LJ, Young GR, Williams JK, Dent OF, McCaughan BC. Intrapleural bupivacaine in the control of postthoracotomy pain. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 1992;53(3):449-53; discussion 53-4.

86. Mason N, Gondret R, Junca A, Bonnet F. Intrathecal sufentanil and morphine for post-thoracotomy pain relief. British Journal of Anaesthesia 2001;86(2):236-40.

87. Matthews PJ, Govenden V. Comparison of continuous paravertebral and extradural infusions of bupivacaine for pain relief after thoracotomy. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1989;62(2):204-5.

88. McCrory C, Diviney D, Moriarty J, Luke D, Fitzgerald D. Comparison between repeat bolus intrathecal morphine and an epidurally delivered bupivacaine and fentanyl combination in the management of post-thoracotomy pain with or without cyclooxygenase inhibition. Journal of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia 2002;16(5):607-11.

89. Merry AF, Wardall GJ, Cameron RJ, Peskett MJ, Wild CJ. Prospective, controlled, double-blind study of i.v. tenoxicam for analgesia after thoracotomy. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1992;69(1):92-4.

90. Merry AF, Sidebotham DA, Middleton NG, Calder MV, Webster CS. Tenoxicam 20 mg or 40 mg after thoracotomy: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care 2002;30(2):160-6.

91. Miguel R, Hubbell D. Pain management and spirometry following thoracotomy: a prospective, randomized study of four techniques. Journal of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia 1993;7(5):529-34.

92. Miller JD, Urschel JD, Cox G, Olak J, Young JE, Kay JM, McDonald E. A randomized, controlled trial comparing thoracoscopy and limited thoracotomy for lung biopsy in interstitial lung disease. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 2000;70(5):1647-50.

93. Mourisse J, Hasenbos MA, Gielen MJ, Moll JE, Cromheecke GJ. Epidural bupivacaine, sufentanil or the combination for post-thoracotomy pain. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 1992;36(1):70-4.

94. Muller LC, Salzer GM, Ransmayr G, Neiss A. Intraoperative cryoanalgesia for postthoracotomy pain relief.[see comment]. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 1989;48(1):15-8.

95. Murphy DF, Medley C. Preoperative indomethacin for pain relief after thoracotomy: comparison with postoperative indomethacin. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1993;70(3):298-300.

96. Neustein SM, Cohen E. Intrathecal morphine during thoracotomy, Part II: Effect on postoperative meperidine requirements and pulmonary function tests. Journal of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia 1993;7(2):157-9.

97. Neustein SM, Kreitzer JM, Krellenstein D, Reich DL, Rapaport E, Cohen E. Preemptive epidural analgesia for thoracic surgery. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine 2002;69(1-2):101-4.

98. Obata H, Saito S, Fujita N, Fuse Y, Ishizaki K, Goto F. Epidural block with mepivacaine before surgery reduces long-term post-thoracotomy pain. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 1999;46(12):1127-32.

99. Ochroch EA, Gottschalk A, Augostides J, Carson KA, Kent L, Malayaman N, Kaiser LR, Aukburg SJ. Long-term pain and activity during recovery from major thoracotomy using thoracic epidural analgesia. Anesthesiology 2002;97(5):1234-44.

100. Orr IA, Keenan DJ, Dundee JW. Improved pain relief after thoracotomy: use of cryoprobe and morphine infusion. British Medical Journal Clinical Research Ed 1981;283(6297):945-8.

101. Pastor J, Morales P, Cases E, Cordero P, Piqueras A, Galan G, Paris F. Evaluation of intercostal cryoanalgesia versus conventional analgesia in postthoracotomy pain. Respiration 1996;63(4):241-5.

102. Patrick JA, Meyer-Witting M, Reynolds F. Lumbar epidural diamorphine following thoracic surgery. A comparison of infusion and bolus administration. Anaesthesia 1991;46(2):85-9.

103. Pavy T, Medley C, Murphy DF. Effect of indomethacin on pain relief after thoracotomy. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1990;65(5):624-7.

104. Perttunen K, Kalso E, Heinonen J, Salo J. IV diclofenac in post-thoracotomy pain. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1992;68(5):474-80.

105. Perttunen K, Nilsson E, Heinonen J, Hirvisalo EL, Salo JA, Kalso E. Extradural, paravertebral and intercostal nerve blocks for post-thoracotomy pain. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1995;75(5):541-7.

106. Power I, Bowler GM, Pugh GC, Chambers WA. Ketorolac as a component of balanced analgesia after thoracotomy.[see comment]. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1994;72(2):224-6.

107. Puntillo KA. Effects of interpleural bupivacaine on pleural chest tube removal pain: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Critical Care 1996;5(2):102-8.

108. Radpay B, Karimi-Zandi S, Dabir S, Parsa T. Comparison between epidural morphine versus morphine + fentanyl in lung resection surgery. Archives of Iranian Medicine 2003;6(2):81-85.

109. Raffin L, Fletcher D, Sperandio M, Antoniotti C, Mazoit X, Bisson A, Fischler M. Interpleural infusion of 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine for postthoracotomy analgesia. Anesthesia & Analgesia 1994;79(2):328-34.

110. Rhodes M, Conacher I, Morritt G, Hilton C. Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs for postthoracotomy pain. A prospective controlled trial after lateral thoracotomy. Journal of Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery 1992;103(1):17-20.

111. Richardson J, Sabanathan S, Eng J, Mearns AJ, Rogers C, Evans CS, Bembridge J, Majid MR. Continuous intercostal nerve block versus epidural morphine for postthoracotomy analgesia. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 1993;55(2):377-80.

112. Richardson J, Sabanathan S, Mearns AJ, Evans CS, Bembridge J, Fairbrass M. Efficacy of pre-emptive analgesia and continuous extrapleural intercostal nerve block on post-thoracotomy pain and pulmonary mechanics. Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery 1994;35(3):219-28.

113. Richardson J, Sabanathan S, Mearns AJ, Shah RD, Goulden C. A prospective, randomized comparison of interpleural and paravertebral analgesia in thoracic surgery. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1995;75(4):405-8.

114. Richardson J, Sabanathan S, Shah RD, Clarke BJ, Cheema S, Mearns AJ. Pleural bupivacaine placement for optimal postthoracotomy pulmonary function: a prospective, randomized study. Journal of Cardiothoracic & Vascular Anesthesia 1998;12(2):166-9.

115. Richardson J, Sabanathan S, Jones J, Shah RD, Cheema S, Mearns AJ. A prospective, randomized comparison of preoperative and continuous balanced epidural or paravertebral bupivacaine on post-thoracotomy pain, pulmonary function and stress responses.[see comment]. British Journal of Anaesthesia 1999;83(3):387-92.

116. Roberts D, Pizzarelli G, Lepore V, al-Khaja N, Belboul A, Dernevik L. Reduction of post-thoracotomy pain by cryotherapy of intercostal nerves. Scandinavian Journal of Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery 1988;22(2):127-30.

117. Rosseel PM, van den Broek WG, Boer EC, Prakash O. Epidural sufentanil for intra- and postoperative analgesia in thoracic surgery: a comparative study with intravenous sufentanil. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 1988;32(3):193-8.

118. Roviaro GC, Varoli F, Fascianella A, Mariani C, Ramella G, Ceccopieri M, Pezzuoli G. Intrathoracic intercostal nerve block with phenol in open chest surgery. A randomized study with statistical evaluation of respiratory parameters. Chest 1986;90(1):64-7.

119. Roxburgh JC, Markland CG, Ross BA, Kerr WF. Role of cryoanalgesia in the control of pain after thoracotomy. Thorax 1987;42(4):292-5.

120. Sabanathan S, Mearns AJ, Bickford Smith PJ, Eng J, Berrisford RG, Bibby SR, Majid MR. Efficacy of continuous extrapleural intercostal nerve block on post-thoracotomy pain and pulmonary mechanics.[see comment]. British Journal of Surgery 1990;77(2):221-5.

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