73 studies excluded (Click here for further information)

Excluded References

Adriaenssens G, Vermeyen KM, Hoffmann VL, Mertens E, Adriaensen HF. Postoperative analgesia with i.v. patient-controlled morphine: effect of adding ketamine. Br J Anaesth 1999;83(3):393–396.

Albert JM, Talbott TM. Patient-controlled analgesia vs. conventional intramuscular analgesia following colon surgery. Dis Colon Rectum 1988;31(2):83–86. Anonymous.

Azma T, Kawai K, Okida M, Okada K, Tamura H. Use of the laryngeal mask airway in combination with regional anesthesia facilitates induction and emergence from general anesthesia in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Hiroshima J Med Sci 2002;51(4):89–92.

Baker RP, Titu LV, Hartley JE, Lee PW, Monson JR. A case-control study of laparoscopic right hemicolectomy vs. open right hemicolectomy. Dis Colon Rectum 2004;47(10): 1675-1679.

Belda FJ, Aguilera L, Garcia de la Asuncion J, Alberti J, Vicente R, Ferrandiz L, Rodriguez R, Company R, Sessler DI, Aguilar G, Botello SG, Orti R. Supplemental perioperative oxygen and the risk of surgical wound infection: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2005;294(16): 2035-2042.

Brown SR, Goodfellow PJ, Adam IJ, Shorthouse AJ. A randomised controlled trial of transverse skin crease vs. vertical midline incision for right hemicolectomy. Tech Coloproctol 2004;8(1): 15-18.

Boudreault D, Brasseur L, Samii K, Lemoing JP. Comparison of continuous epidural bupivacaine infusion plus either continuous epidural infusion or patient-controlled epidural injection of fentanyl for postoperative analgesia. Anesth Analg 1991;73(2):132–137.

Bourget JL, Clark J, Joy N. Comparing preincisional with postincisional bupivacaine infiltration in the management of postoperative pain. Arch Surg 1997;132(7):766–769.

Braga M, Vignali A, Gianotti L, Zuliani W, Radaelli G, Gruarin P, Dellabona P, Di Carlo V. Laparoscopic versus open colorectal surgery: a randomized trial on short-term outcome. Ann Surg 2002;236(6):759–766.

Cali RL, Meade PG, Swanson MS, Freeman C. Effect of Morphine and incision length on bowel function after colectomy. Dis Colon Rectum 2000;43(2):163–168.

Chen JH, Hsieh CB, Chao PC, Liu HD, Chen CJ, Liu YC, Yu JC. Effect of water-soluble contrast in colorectal surgery: a prospective randomized trial. World J Gastroenterol 2005;11(18): 2802-2805.

de Leon-Casasola OA, Parker BM, Lema MJ, Groth RI, Orsini-Fuentes J. Epidural analgesia versus intravenous patient-controlled analgesia. Differences in the postoperative course of cancer patients. Reg Anesth 1994;19(5):307–315.

Delaney CP, Weese JL, Hyman NH, Bauer J, Techner L, Gabriel K, Du W, Schmidt WK, Wallin BA. Phase III trial of alvimopan, a novel, peripherally acting, mu opioid antagonist, for postoperative ileus after major abdominal surgery. Dis Colon Rectum 2005;48(6): 1114-1125.

Egbert AM, Lampros LL, Parks LL. Effects of patient-controlled analgesia on postoperative anxiety in elderly men. Am J Crit Care 1993;2(2):118–124.

Espin-Basany E, Sanchez-Garcia JL, Lopez-Cano M, Lozoya-Trujillo R, Medarde-Ferrer M, Armadans-Gil L, Alemany-Vilches L, Armengol-Carrasco M. Prospective, randomised study on antibiotic prophylaxis in colorectal surgery. Is it really necessary to use oral antibiotics? Int J Colorectal Dis 2005;20(6): 542-546.

Fearon KC, Ljungqvist O, Von Meyenfeldt M, Revhaug A, Dejong CH, Lassen K, Nygren J, Hausel J, Soop M, Andersen J, Kehlet H. Enhanced recovery after surgery: a consensus review of clinical care for patients undergoing colonic resection. Clin Nutr 2005;24(3): 466-477.

Ferraz AA, Cowles VE, Condon RE, Carilli S, Ezberci F, Frantzides CT, Schulte WJ. Nonopioid analgesics shorten the duration of postoperative ileus. Am Surg 1995;61(12):1079–1083.

Frantzides CT, Cowles V, Salaymeh B, Tekin E, Condon RE. Morphine effects on human colonic myoelectric activity in the postoperative period. Am J Surg 1992;163(1):144–148.

Gendall KA, Raniga S, Kennedy R, Frizelle FA. The impact of obesity on outcome after major colorectal surgery. Dis Colon Rectum 2007;50(12): 2223–2237.

Greer SM, Dalton JA, Carlson J, Youngblood R. Surgical patients’ fear of addiction to pain medication: the effect of an educational program for clinicians. Clin J Pain 2001;17(2):157–164.

HALS Study Group. Hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery vs standard laparoscopic surgery for colorectal disease: a prospective randomized trial. Surg Endosc 2000;14(10):896–901.

Han-Geurts IJ, Hop WC, Kok NF, Lim A, Brouwer KJ, Jeekel J. Randomized clinical trial of the impact of early enteral feeding on postoperative ileus and recovery. Br J Surg 2007;94(5): 555–561.

Hasegawa H, Kabeshima Y, Watanabe M, Yamamoto S, Kitajima M. Randomized controlled trial of laparoscopic versus open colectomy for advanced colorectal cancer. Surg Endosc 2003;17(4): 636–640.

Huilgol RL, Wright CM, Solomon MJ. Laparoscopic versus open ileocolic resection for Crohn’s disease. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A 2004;14(2): 61–65.

Jayr C, Beaussier M, Gustafsson U, Leteurnier Y, Nathan N, Plaud B, Tran G, Varlet C, Marty J. Continuous epidural infusion of ropivacaine for postoperative analgesia after major abdominal surgery: comparative study with i.v. PCA morphine. Br J Anaesth 1998;81(6):887–892.

Jensen MP, Chen C, Brugger AM. Postsurgical pain outcome assessment. Pain 2002;99(1–2):101–109.

Joels CS, Mostafa G, Matthews BD, Kercher KW, Sing RF, Norton HJ, Heniford BT. Factors affecting intravenous analgesic requirements after colectomy. J Am Coll Surg 2003;197(5): 780-785.

Joshi GP, Ogunnaike BO. Consequences of inadequate postoperative pain relief and chronic persistent postoperative pain. Anesthesiol Clin North America 2005;23(1): 21–36.

Kearns SR, Connolly EM, McNally S, McNamara DA, Deasy J. Randomized clinical trial of diathermy versus scalpel incision in elective midline laparotomy. Br J Surg 2001;88(1):41–44.

Kehlet H, Mogensen T. Hospital stay of 2 days after open sigmoidectomy with a multimodal rehabilitation programme. Br J Surg 1999;86(2):227–230.

Khoo CK, Vickery CJ, Forsyth N, Vinall NS, Eyre-Brook IA. A prospective randomized controlled trial of multimodal perioperative management protocol in patients undergoing elective colorectal resection for cancer. Ann Surg 2007;245(6): 867-872.

Klarenbeek BR, Veenhof AA, de Lange ES, Bemelman WA, Bergamaschi R, Heres P, Lacy AM, van den Broek WT, van der Peet DL, Cuesta MA. The Sigma-trial protocol: a prospective double-blind multi-centre comparison of laparoscopic versus open elective sigmoid resection in patients with symptomatic diverticulitis. BMC Surg 2007;7: 16.

Kobayashi M, Mohri Y, Tonouchi H, Miki C, Nakai K, Kusunoki M. Randomized clinical trial comparing intravenous antimicrobial prophylaxis alone with oral and intravenous antimicrobial prophylaxis for the prevention of a surgical site infection in colorectal cancer surgery. Surg Today 2007;37(5): 383-388.

Kong SK, Onsiong SM, Chiu WK, Li MK. Use of intrathecal morphine for postoperative pain relief after elective laparoscopic colorectal surgery. Anaesthesia 2002;57(12):1168–1173.

Krogh B, Jorn Jensen P, Henneberg SW, Hole P, Kronborg O. Nitrous oxide does not influence operating conditions or postoperative course in colonic surgery. Br J Anaesth 1994;72(1):55–57.

Kumar S, Kumar M, Gupta R. Keterolac vs Nefopam: comparison of single intravenous dose relieving post-operative pain following laparotomy. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 1996;28:240–243. Kumar CM, Corbett WA, Wilson RG. Spinal anaesthesia with a micro-catheter in high-risk patients undergoing colorectal cancer and other major abdominal surgery. Surg Oncol 2008;17(2): 73-79.

Lai A, Hung CT. Effect of age on recovery from remifentanil anaesthesia. Anaesth Intensive Care 2001;29(5):506–509.

Larsen VH, Iversen AD, Christensen P, Andersen PK. Postoperative pain treatment after upper abdominal surgery with epidural morphine at thoracic or lumbar level. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1985;29(6):566–571.

Lawes D, Taylor I. Recent randomised trials in colorectal disease. Colorectal Dis 2005;7(1): 8–17.

Lezoche E, Feliciotti F, Paganini AM, Guerrieri M, Campagnacci R, De Sanctis A. Laparoscopic colonic resections versus open surgery: a prospective non-randomized study on 310 unselected cases. Hepatogastroenterology 2000;47(33):697–708.

Lordan JT, Tilney HS, Shirol S, Jourdan I, Gudgeon AM. Does the laparoscopic colorectal surgery learning curve adversely affect the results of colorectal cancer resection? A 3-year prospective study in a district general hospital. Colorectal Dis 2008;10(4): 363–369.

Mann C, Pouzeratte Y, Boccara G, Peccoux C, Vergne C, Brunat G, Domergue J, Millat B, Colson P. Comparison of intravenous or epidural patient-controlled analgesia in the elderly after major abdominal surgery. Anesthesiology 2000;92(2):433–441.

Mayzler O, Weksler N, Domchik S, Klein M, Mizrahi S, Gurman GM. Does supplemental perioperative oxygen administration reduce the incidence of wound infection in elective colorectal surgery? Minerva Anestesiol 2005;71(1-2): 21–25.

Melbert RB, Kimmins MH, Isler JT, Billingham RP, Lawton D, Salvadalena G, Cortezzo M, Rowbotham R. Use of a critical pathway for colon resections. J Gastrointest Surg 2002;6(5):745–752.

Milsom JW, Hammerhofer KA, Bohm B, Marcello P, Elson P, Fazio VW. Prospective, randomized trial comparing laparoscopic vs. conventional surgery for refractory ileocolic Crohn’s disease. Dis Colon Rectum 2001;44(1):1–8.

Moiniche S, Bulow S, Hesselfeldt P, Hestbaek A, Kehlet H. Convalescence and hospital stay after colonic surgery with balanced analgesia, early oral feeding, and enforced mobilisation. Eur J Surg 1995;161(4):283–288.

Morimoto H, Cullen JJ, Messick JM, Jr., Kelly KA. Epidural analgesia shortens postoperative ileus after ileal pouch-anal canal anastomosis. Am J Surg 1995;169(1):79–82.

Nelson H, Sargent D, Wieand HS, et al; for the Clinical Outcomes of Surgical Therapy Study Group. A comparison of laparoscopically assisted and open colectomy for colon cancer. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 2050-2059. Cancer Treat Rev 2004;30(8): 707–709.

Neudecker J, Schwenk W, Junghans T, Pietsch S, Bohm B, Muller JM. Randomized controlled trial to examine the influence of thoracic epidural analgesia on postoperative ileus after laparoscopic sigmoid resection. Br J Surg 1999;86(10):1292–1295.

Neudecker J, Junghans T, Ziemer S, Raue W, Schwenk W. Effect of laparoscopic and conventional colorectal resection on peritoneal fibrinolytic capacity: a prospective randomized clinical trial. Int J Colorectal Dis 2002;17(6):426–429.

Niloff PH. Chewing gum may be efficacious in patients not receiving continuous postoperative epidural analgesia. Colorectal Dis 2007;9(7): 666-667.

Omote K. Intravenous Lidocaine to Treat Postoperative Pain Management: Novel Strategy with a Long-established Drug. Anesthesiology 2007;106(1): 5-6

Petrelli NJ, Cheng C, Driscoll D, Rodriguez-Bigas MA.Early postoperative oral feeding after colectomy: an analysis of factors that may predict failure. Ann Surg Oncol 2001;8(10):796–800.

Peyton PJ, Myles PS, Silbert BS, Rigg JA, Jamrozik K, Parsons R. Perioperative epidural analgesia and outcome after major abdominal surgery in high-risk patients. Anesth Analg 2003;96(2):548–554..

Pietrabissa A, Moretto C, Carobbi A, Boggi U, Ghilli M, Mosca F. Hand-assisted laparoscopic low anterior resection: initial experience with a new procedure. Surg Endosc 2002;16(3):431–435.

Quah HM, Samad A, Neathey AJ, Hay DJ, Maw A. Does gum chewing reduce postoperative ileus following open colectomy for left-sided colon and rectal cancer? A prospective randomized controlled trial. Colorectal Dis 2006;8(1): 64-70.

Renzi C, Peticca L, Pescatori M. The use of relaxation techniques in the perioperative management of proctological patients: preliminary results. Int J Colorectal Dis 2000;15(5–6):313–316.

Schulze S, Lyng KM, Bugge K, Perner A, Bendtsen A, Thorup J, Nielsen HJ, Rasmussen V, Rosenberg J. Cardiovascular and respiratory changes and convalescence in laparoscopic colonic surgery: comparison between carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum and gasless laparoscopy. Arch Surg 1999;134(10):1112–1118.

Scott DA, Blake D, Buckland M, Etches R, Halliwell R, Marsland C, Merridew G, Murphy D, Paech M, Schug SA, Turner G, Walker S, Huizar K, Gustafsson U. A comparison of epidural ropivacaine infusion alone and in combination with 1, 2, and 4 microg/mL fentanyl for seventy-two hours of postoperative analgesia after major abdominal surgery. Anesth Analg 1999;88(4):857–864.

Shapiro A, Zohar E, Hoppenstein D, Ifrach N, Jedeikin R, Fredman B. A comparison of three techniques for acute postoperative pain control following major abdominal surgery. J Clin Anesth 2003;15(5): 345–350.

Senagore AJ, Delaney CP, Mekhail N, Dugan A, Fazio VW. Randomized clinical trial comparing epidural anaesthesia and patient-controlled analgesia after laparoscopic segmental colectomy. Br J Surg 2003;90(10):1195–1199.

Tang CL, Jayne DG, Seow-Choen F, Ng YY, Eu KW, Mustapha N. A randomized controlled trial of 0.5% ferric hyaluronate gel (Intergel) in the prevention of adhesions following abdominal surgery. Ann Surg 2006;243(4): 449–455.

Targarona EM, Gracia E, Garriga J, Martinez-Bru C, Cortes M, Boluda R, Lerma L, Trias M. Prospective randomized trial comparing conventional laparoscopic colectomy with hand-assisted laparoscopic colectomy: applicability, immediate clinical outcome, inflammatory response, and cost. Surg Endosc 2002;16(2):234–239.

Telfer JR, Canning G, Galloway DJ. Comparative study of abdominal incision techniques. Br J Surg 1993;80(2):233–235. Tjandra JJ, Chan MK, Yeh CH. Laparoscopic- vs. hand-assisted ultralow anterior resection: a prospective study. Dis Colon Rectum 2008;51(1): 26–31.

Trimbos JB, Smit IB, Holm JP, Hermans J. A randomized clinical trial comparing two methods of fascia closure following midline laparotomy. Arch Surg 1992;127(10):1232–1234.

Tsunoda A, Nakao K, Hiratsuka K, Tsunoda Y, Kusano M. Prospective analysis of quality of life in the first year after colorectal cancer surgery. Acta Oncol 2007;46(1): 77–82.

Valverde A, Msika S, Kianmanesh R, Hay JM, Couchard AC, Flamant Y, Fingerhut A, Fagniez PL. Povidone-iodine vs sodium hypochlorite enema for mechanical preparation before elective open colonic or rectal resection with primary anastomosis: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Arch Surg 2006;141(12): 1168–1174.

Van Assche G, D’Haens G, Noman M, Vermeire S, Hiele M, Asnong K, Arts J, D’Hoore A, Penninckx F, Rutgeerts P. Randomized, double-blind comparison of 4 mg/kg versus 2 mg/kg intravenous cyclosporine in severe ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 2003;125(4): 1025–1031.

Veldkamp R, Kuhry E, Hop WC, Jeekel J, Kazemier G, Bonjer HJ, Haglind E, Pahlman L, Cuesta MA, Msika S, Morino M, Lacy AM. Laparoscopic surgery versus open surgery for colon cancer: short-term outcomes of a randomised trial. Lancet Oncol 2005;6(7): 477–484.

Wakeling HG, McFall MR, Jenkins CS, Woods WG, Miles WF, Barclay GR, Fleming SC. Intraoperative oesophageal Doppler guided fluid management shortens postoperative hospital stay after major bowel surgery. Br J Anaesth 2005;95(5): 634–642.

Werner MU, Gaarn-Larsen L, Basse L, Jakobsen DH, Lund C, Billesbolle P, Kehlet H. Postoperative pain and gastro-intestinal recovery after colonic resection with epidural analgesia and multimodal rehabilitation. Acute Pain 2005;7(1): 5–11.

Wichmann MW, Eben R, Angele MK, Brandenburg F, Goetz AE, Jauch KW. Fast-track rehabilitation in elective colorectal surgery patients: a prospective clinical and immunological single-centre study. ANZ J Surg 2007;77(7): 502–507.

Wise PE. Does single, low-dose preoperative dexamethasone improve outcomes after colorectal surgery based on an enhanced recovery protocol? Double-blind, randomized clinical trial Diseases of the Colon and Rectum 2008;51(8): 1303.

Wissing J, van Vroonhoven TJ, Schattenkerk ME, Veen HF, Ponsen RJ, Jeekel J. Fascia closure after midline laparotomy: results of a randomized trial. Br J Surg 1987;74(8):738–741.

Yoshioka K, Connolly AB, Ogunbiyi OA, Hasegawa H, Morton DG, Keighley MR. Randomized trial of oral sodium phosphate compared with oral sodium picosulphate (Picolax) for elective colorectal surgery and colonoscopy. Dig Surg 2000;17(1):66–70.