121 studies excluded (Click here for further information)

Excluded studies

Aho M, Erkola O, Kallio A, Scheinin H, Korttila K. Dexmedetomidine infusion for maintenance of anesthesia in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. Anesth Analg 1992;75(6):940.

Alkaissi A, Evertsson K, Johnsson VA, Ofenbartl L, Kalman S. P6 acupressure may relieve nausea and vomiting after gynecological surgery: an effectiveness study in 410 women. Can J Anaesth 2002;49(10):1034–1039.

Asantila R, Eklund P, Rosenberg PH. Continuous epidural infusion of bupivacaine and morphine for postoperative analgesia after hysterectomy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1991;35(6):513.

Atanassoff PG, Hartmannsgruber MW, Thrasher J, Wermeling D, Longton W, Gaeta R, Singh T, Mayo M, McGuire D, Luther RR. Ziconotide, a new N-type calcium channel blocker, administered intrathecally for acute postoperative pain. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2000;25(3):274.

Balestrieri P, Simmons G, Hill D, Brown J, Jackson A, Brull SJ, Maneatis TJ, Shefrin A, Bynum L, O’Hara DA. The effect of intravenous ketorolac given intraoperatively versus postoperatively on outcome from gynecologic abdominal surgery. J Clin Anesth 1997;9(5):358–364.

Barrow PM, Hughes DG, Redfern N, Urie J. Influence of droperidol on nausea and vomiting during patient-controlled analgesia. Br J Anaesth 1994;72(4):460.

Barton SF, Langeland FF, Snabes MC, LeComte D, Kuss ME, Dhadda SS, Hubbard RC. Efficacy and safety of intravenous parecoxib sodium in relieving acute postoperative pain following gynecologic laparotomy surgery. Anesthesiology 2002;97(2):306.

Benassi L, Rossi T, Kaihura CT, Ricci L, Bedocchi L, Galanti B, Vadora E. Abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy for enlarged uteri: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;187(6):1561.

Beresford JM, Moher D. A prospective comparison of abdominal hysterectomy using absorbable staples. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1993;176(6):555.

Bloomfield SS, Cissell GB, Mitchell J, Barden TP, Kaiko RF, Fitzmartin RD, Grandy RP, Komorowski J, Goldenheim PD. Analgesic efficacy and potency of two oral controlled-release morphine preparations. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1993;53(4):469.

Bohrer H, Quintel M, Fischer MV. Clinical evaluation of electrostimulation anaesthesia for hysterectomy. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1991;35(6):529.

Boysen K, Hertel S, Chraemmer-Jorgensen B, Risbo A, Poulsen NJ. Buprenorphine antagonism of ventilatory depression following fentanyl anaesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1988;32(6):490.

Bradley JP. A comparison of morphine and buprenorphine for analgesia after abdominal surgery. Anaesth Intensive Care 1984;12(4):303.

Bristow A, Orlikowski C. Subcutaneous ketamine analgesia: postoperative analgesia using subcutaneous infusions of ketamine and morphine. Ann R Coll Surg Engl 1989;71(1):64.

Bronitsky C, Payne RJ, Stuckey S, Wilkins D. A comparison of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy vs traditional total abdominal and vaginal hysterectomies. J Gynecol Surg 1993;9(4):219.

Callaghan P, Li HC. The effect of pre-operative psychological interventions on post-operative outcomes in Chinese women having an elective hysterectomy. British Journal of Health Psychology 2002;7(2):247–252.

Carlborg L, Lindoff C, Hellman A. Diclofenac versus pethidine in the treatment of pain after hysterectomy. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1987;4(4):241.

Chen L, Tang J, White PF, Sloninsky A, Wender RH, Naruse R, Kariger R. The effect of location of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on postoperative opioid analgesic requirement: acupoint versus nonacupoint stimulation. Anesth Analg 1998;87(5):1129.

Choi JC, Yoon KB, Um DJ, Kim C, Kim JS, Lee SG. Intravenous magnesium sulfate administration reduces propofol infusion requirements during maintenance of propofol-N2O anesthesia: part I: comparing propofol requirements according to hemodynamic responses: part II: comparing bispectral index in control and magnesium groups. Anesthesiology 2002;97(5):1137.

Chraemmer-Jorgensen B, Hoilund-Carlsen PF, Marving J, Christensen V. Lack of effect of intravenous lidocaine on hemodynamic responses to rapid sequence induction of general anesthesia: a double-blind controlled clinical trial. Anesth Analg 1986;65(10):1037.

Christensen P, Brandt MR, Rem J, Kehlet H. Influence of extradural morphine on the adrenocortical and hyperglycaemic response to surgery. Br J Anaesth 1982;54(1):23–7.

Christensen PA, Noreng M, Andersen PE, Nielsen JW. Electroacupuncture and postoperative pain. BJA: British Journal of Anaesthesia 1989;62(3):258–262.

De Lia JE, Michelin DP, Johnson SC, Kajdacsy-Balla A. Cherney versus midline vertical incision for myomectomy or hysterectomy of a significantly enlarged uterus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;173(6):1714–1717.

de-Leon-Casasola OA, Parker BM, Lema MJ, Groth RI, Orsini-Fuentes J. Epidural analgesia versus intravenous patient-controlled analgesia. Differences in the postoperative course of cancer patients. Reg Anesth 1994;19(5):307.

Dobrydnjov I, Samarutel J. Enhancement of intrathecal lidocaine by addition of local and systemic clonidine. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1999;43(5):556.

Doucette RC, Scott JR. Comparison of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy with abdominal and vaginal hysterectomy. J Reprod Med 1996;41(1):1.

Dresner M, Dean S, Lumb A, Bellamy M. High-dose ondansetron regimen vs droperidol for morphine patient-controlled analgesia. Br J Anaesth 1998;81(3):384.

Dudley G, McGrath KN, Pheley AM. Length of stay and medication use in hysterectomy patients treated with a single massage treatment. Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies 2003;7(4):222–227.

Dyer RA, Camden-Smith K, James MF. Epidural lidocaine with sufentanil and epinephrine for abdominal hysterectomy under general anaesthesia: respiratory depression and postoperative analgesia. Can J Anaesth 1992;39(3):220–225.

Elia G, Vermesh M, Bergman A. A cohort study comparing laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy and extrafascial hysterectomy. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 1995;2(4):395.

Ellis R, Haines D, Shah R, Cotton BR, Smith G. Pain relief after abdominal surgery–a comparison of i.m. morphine, sublingual buprenorphine and self-administered i.v. pethidine. Br J Anaesth 1982;54(4):421–8.

Eltabbakh GH, Shamonki MI, Moody JM, Garafano LL. Hysterectomy for obese women with endometrial cancer: laparoscopy or laparotomy? Gynecol Oncol 2000;78(3 Pt 1):329–335.

Erkola O, Korttila K, Aho M, Haasio J, Aantaa R, Kallio A. Comparison of intramuscular dexmedetomidine and midazolam premedication for elective abdominal hysterectomy. Anesth Analg 1994;79(4):646.

Facchinetti F, De PR, Giunchi M, Genazzani AR. Use of meclofenamic acid in gynecology and obstetrics: effects on postsurgical stress. Clin J Pain 1991;7 Suppl 1:S60.

Farquhar CM, Sadler L, Harvey S, McDougall J, Yazdi G, Meuli K. A prospective study of the short-term outcomes of hysterectomy with and without oophorectomy. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2002;42(2):197.

Fassoulaki A, Sarantopoulos C, Papilas K, Zotou M. Nerve stimulation in patients undergoing hysterectomy under general anaesthesia. Anaesthesiol Reanim 1994;19(2):49.

Ferrari MM, Berlanda N, Mezzopane R, Ragusa G, Cavallo M, Pardi G. Identifying the indications for laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy: a prospective, randomised comparison with abdominal hysterectomy in patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids. BJOG 2000;107(5):620.

Finucane BT, Sandler AN, McKenna J, Reid D, Milner AL, Friedlander M, Muzyka D, O’Callaghan-Enright S, Chan V. A double-blind comparison of ropivacaine 0.5%, 0.75%, 1.0% and bupivacaine 0.5%, injected epidurally, in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. Can J Anaesth 1996;43(5 Pt 1):442.

Fruergaard K, Jenstrup M, Schierbeck J, Wiberg-Jorgensen F. Total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol or etomidate. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1991;8(5):385.

Goldstein A, Grimault P, Henique A, Keller M, Fortin A, Darai E. Preventing postoperative pain by local anesthetic instillation after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery: a placebo-controlled comparison of bupivacaine and ropivacaine. Anesth Analg 2000;91(2):403–7.

Guo X, Yi J, Ye T, Luo A, Huang Y, Ren H. Comparison of remifentanil and fentanyl in patients undergoing modified radical mastectomy or total hysterectomy. Chin Med J (Engl) 2003;116(9):1386.

Harkki-Siren P, Sjoberg J, Toivonen J, Tiitinen A. Clinical outcome and tissue trauma after laparoscopic and abdominal hysterectomy: a randomized controlled study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2000;79(10):866–871.

Hasan SS, Khan FH, Ahmed M. Comparison of ketorolac with morphine for intra-operative analgesia in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy. J Pak Med Assoc 2003;53(10):467.

Hebertson RM, Storey N. The comparative efficacy of diclofenac potassium, aspirin, and placebo in the treatment of patients with pain following gynecologic surgery. Today’s Therapeutic Trends 1994;12(Suppl 1):33–45.

Hedges A, Rose J, Leighton M, Turner P. A double-blind comparison of meptazinol with placebo in postoperative pain. J Clin Pharmacol 1977;17(2-3):125–127.

Hedges A, Wadsworth J, Turner P. A double-blind comparison of nefopam and placebo in post-operative pain. Curr Med Res Opin 1978;5(8):614.

Heye ML, Foster L, Bartlett MK, Adkins S. A preoperative intervention for pain reduction, improved mobility, and self-efficacy. Appl Nurs Res 2002;15(3):174.

Hickman TN, Namnoum AB, Hinton EL, Zacur HA, Rock JA. Timing of estrogen replacement therapy following hysterectomy with oophorectomy for endometriosis. Obstet Gynecol 1998;91(5 Pt 1):673.

Ho ST, Wang JJ, Liu HS, Hu OY, Tzeng JI, Liaw WJ. Comparison of PCA nalbuphine and morphine in Chinese gynecologic patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Sin 1998;36(2):65.

Hodsman NB, Burns J, Blyth A, Kenny GN, McArdle CS, Rotman H. The morphine sparing effects of diclofenac sodium following abdominal surgery. Anaesthesia 1987;42(9):1005–8.

Houmes RJ, Voets MA, Verkaaik A, Erdmann W, Lachmann B. Efficacy and safety of tramadol versus morphine for moderate and severe postoperative pain with special regard to respiratory depression. Anesth Analg 1992;74(4):510–514.

Jaakola ML, Kanto J, Scheinin H, Kallio A. Intramuscular dexmedetomidine premedication–an alternative to midazolam-fentanyl-combination in elective hysterectomy? Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1994;38(3):238–43.

Janschek EC, Hohlagschwandtner M, Nather A, Schindl M, Joura EA. A study of non-closure of the peritoneum at vaginal hysterectomy. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2003;267(4):213.

Jenstrup M, Nielsen J, Fruergard K, Moller AM, Wiberg-Jorgensen F. Total i.v. anaesthesia with propofol-alfentanil or propofol-fentanyl. Br J Anaesth 1990;64(6):717.

Jones RD, Miles W, Prankerd R, Lang C, Chilvers M, Lo SK. Tenoxicam i.v. in major gynaecological surgery–pharmacokinetic, pain relief and haematological effects. Anaesth Intensive Care 2000;28(5):491–500.

Jorgensen H, Fomsgaard JS, Dirks J, Wetterslev J, Andreasson B, Dahl JB. Effect of epidural bupivacaine vs combined epidural bupivacaine and morphine on gastrointestinal function and pain after major gynaecological surgery. Br J Anaesth 2001;87(5):727.

Jugnet N, Cosson M, Wattiez A, Donnez J, Buick V, Mage G, Querleu D. Comparing vaginal and coelioscopic total or subtotal hysterectomies: Prospective multicentre study including 82 patients. Gynaecological Endoscopy 2001;10(5-6):315–321.

Katz J, Clairoux M, Kavanagh BP, Roger S, Nierenberg H, Redahan C, Sandler AN. Pre-emptive lumbar epidural anaesthesia reduces postoperative pain and patient-controlled morphine consumption after lower abdominal surgery. Pain 1994;59(3):395–403.

Keita H, Benifla JL, Le Bouar V, Porcher R, Wachowska B, Bedairia K, Mantz J, Desmonts JM. Prophylactic ip injection of bupivacaine and/or morphine does not improve postoperative analgesia after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery: [L’injection intraperitoneale preventive de bupivacaine et/ou de morphine n’ameliore pas l’analgesie postoperatoire apres une intervention gynecologique laparoscopique]. Can J Anaesth 2003;50(4):362–367.

Kimberley NA, Kirkpatrick SM, Watters JM. Alterations in respiratory mechanics after laparoscopic and open surgical procedures. Can J Surg 1996;39(4):312.

Kjerulff KH, Guzinski G, Langenberg P, Pegues R. Cost-Effectiveness of Laparoscopic-Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 1996;3(4, Supplement):S22.

Kovac AL, Azad SS, Steer P, Witkowski T, Batenhorst R, McNeal S. Remifentanil versus alfentanil in a balanced anesthetic technique for total abdominal hysterectomy. J Clin Anesth 1997;9(7):532.

Kucuk M. Laparoscopic management of fallopian tube prolapse masquerading as adenocarcinoma of the vagina in a hysterectomized woman. BMC Womens Health 2002;2(1):2.

Laffey DA, Kay NH. Premedication with butorphanol. A comparison with morphine. Br J Anaesth 1984;56(4):363.

Learman LA, Summitt RL, Jr., Varner RE, McNeeley SG, Goodman-Gruen D, Richter HE, Lin F, Showstack J, Ireland CC, Vittinghoff E, Hulley SB, Washington AE. A randomized comparison of total or supracervical hysterectomy: surgical complications and clinical outcomes. Obstet Gynecol 2003;102(3):453.

Ledergerber CP. Postoperative electroanalgesia. Obstet Gynecol 1978;51(3):334.

Lehmann KA, Schlusener M, Arabatsis P. Failure of proglumide, a cholecystokinin antagonist, to potentiate clinical morphine analgesia. A randomized double-blind postoperative study using patient-controlled analgesia (PCA). Anesth Analg 1989;68(1):51–56.

Leong WM, Lo WK, Chiu JW. Analgesic efficacy of continuous delivery of bupivacaine by an elastomeric balloon infusor after abdominal hysterectomy: a prospective randomised controlled trial. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 2002;42(5):515.

Liu K, Chia YY, Lo Y, Kan YY, Wang JJ, Ho ST. Effect of preoperative transdermal ketoprofen on post-hysterectomy pain. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei) 1997;60(6):290.

Lumsden MA, Twaddle S, Hawthorn R, Traynor I, Gilmore D, Davis J, Deeny M, Cameron IT, Walker JJ. A randomised comparison and economic evaluation of laparoscopic-assisted hysterectomy and abdominal hysterectomy. BJOG 2000;107(11):1386.

Melzack R, Germain M, Belanger E, Fuchs PN, Swick R. Positive intrasurgical suggestion fails to affect postsurgical pain. J Pain Symptom Manage 1996;11(2):103.

Mettler L, Semm K. Subtotal versus total laparoscopic hysterectomy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand Suppl 1997;164:88.

Meyer R. Rofecoxib reduces perioperative morphine consumption for abdominal hysterectomy and laparoscopic gastric banding 7. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care 2002;30(3):389-390.

Mihic DN, Abram SE. Optimal regional anaesthesia for abdominal hysterectomy: combined subarachnoid and epidural block compared with other regional techniques. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1993;10(4):297–301.

Millar AY, Mansfield MD, Kinsella J. Influence of timing of morphine administration on postoperative pain and analgesic consumption. Br J Anaesth 1998;81(3):373–376.

Minai FN, Khan FA. A comparison of morphine and nalbuphine for intraoperative and postoperative analgesia. J Pak Med Assoc 2003;53(9):391.

Miro J, Raich RM. Effects of a brief and economical intervention in preparing patients for surgery: does coping style matter? Pain 1999;83(3):471.

Moller C, Kehlet H, Friland SG, Schouenborg LO, Lund C, Ottesen B. Fast track hysterectomy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2001;98(1):18.

Moon MH, Gibbs JM. The control of postoperative pain by EMG biofeedback in patients undergoing hysterectomy. N Z Med J 1984;97(764):643.

Morrison JC, Harris J, Sherrill J, Heilman CJ, Bucovaz ET, Wiser WL. Comparative study of flurbiprofen and morphine for postsurgical gynecologic pain. Am J Med 1986;80(3A):55–59.

Moss JT, Baysinger CL, Boswell GW, Sayson S. Possible intraoperative anesthetic-sparing effect of parenteral ketorolac. Ann Pharmacother 1992;26(7-8):922.

Nelskyla K, Yli-Hankala A, Sjoberg J, Korhonen I, Korttila K. Warming of insufflation gas during laparoscopic hysterectomy: effect on body temperature and the autonomic nervous system. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1999;43(10):974.

O’Neal MG, Beste T, Shackelford DP. Utility of preemptive local analgesia in vaginal hysterectomy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189(6):1539.

Ottosen C, Lingman G, Ottosen L. Three methods for hysterectomy: a randomised, prospective study of short term outcome. Bjog 2000;107(11):1380–1385.

Perri KD, Perri MG. Use of relaxation training to reduce pain following vaginal hysterectomy. Percept Mot Skills 1979;48(2):478.

Pryle BJ, Vanner RG, Enriquez N, Reynolds F. Can pre-emptive lumbar epidural blockade reduce postoperative pain following lower abdominal surgery? Anaesthesia 1993;48(2):120.

Richlin DM, Reuben SS. Postoperative pain control with methadone following lower abdominal surgery. J Clin Anesth 1991;3(2):112–116.

Rittenhouse BE, Choiniere M. An economic evaluation of pain therapy after hysterectomy. Patient-controlled analgesia versus regular intramuscular opioid therapy. Int J Technol Assess Health Care 1999;15(3):548.

Rogers JE, Fleming BG, Macintosh KC, Johnston B, Morgan-Hughes JO. Effect of timing of ketorolac administration on patient-controlled opioid use. Br J Anaesth 1995;75(1):15.

Rorarius MG, Kujansuu E, Baer GA, Suominen P, Teisala K, Miettinen A, Ylitalo P, Laippala P. Laparoscopically assisted vaginal and abdominal hysterectomy: comparison of postoperative pain, fatigue and systemic response. A case-control study. Eur J Anaesthesiol 2001;18(8):530.

Roushdy M, Farag O, Mosaad M, Zayed M. Pain after hysterectomy: A comparison between four currently available procedures. Gynaecological Endoscopy 1997;6(2):99-103.

Scheinin H, Jaakola ML, Sjovall S, Ali-Melkkila T, Kaukinen S, Turunen J, Kanto J. Intramuscular dexmedetomidine as premedication for general anesthesia. A comparative multicenter study. Anesthesiology 1993;78(6):1065.

Sear JW, Alexander JI. Comparison of buprenorphine-hyoscine and papaveretum-hyoscine as premedicants for gynaecological surgery. Br J Anaesth 1983;55(4):319.

Sevarino FB, Naulty JS, Sinatra R, Chin ML, Paige D, Conry K, Silverman DG. Transdermal fentanyl for postoperative pain management in patients recovering from abdominal gynecologic surgery. Anesthesiology 1992;77(3):463–466.

Sevarino FB, Sinatra RS, Paige D, Silverman DG. Intravenous ketorolac as an adjunct to patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for management of postgynecologic surgical pain. J Clin Anesth 1994;6(1):23–27.

Sharma SK, Davies MW. Patient-controlled analgesia with a mixture of morphine and droperidol. Br J Anaesth 1993;71(3):435.

Shen CC, Huang FJ, Hsu TY, Weng HH, Chang HW, Chang SY. A prospective, randomized study of closed-suction drainage after laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 2002;9(3):346.

Shen CC, Wu MP, Lu CH, Huang EY, Chang HW, Huang FJ, Hsu TY, Chang SY. Short- and long-term clinical results of laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy and total abdominal hysterectomy. J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 2003;10(1):49–54.

Singh M, Khan RM, Bano S, Huda W, Hakim S, Grover N. Non-pharmacological relief of acute pain following total abdominal hysterectomy 7. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia 2002;49(5):530-531.

Smythe M, Haubert K, Hoffman J, Dmuchowski C. Comparison of three morphine regimens in postsurgical patients using patient-controlled analgesia. Ann Pharmacother 1993;27(6):691.

Smythe M, Loughlin K, Schad RF, Lucarroti RL. Patient-controlled analgesia versus intramuscular analgesic therapy. Am J Hosp Pharm 1994;51(11):1433.

Soriano D, Goldstein A, Lecuru F, Darai E. Recovery from vaginal hysterectomy compared with laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy: a prospective, randomized, multicenter study. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2001;80(4):337.

Stahlgren LR, Trierweiler M, Tommeraasen M, Mehlisch D, Otterson W, Maneatis T, Bynum L, DiGiorgio E. Comparison of ketorolac and meperidine in patients with postoperative pain–impact on health care utilization. Clin Ther 1993;15(3):571.

Summitt RL, Jr., Stovall TG, Lipscomb GH, Ling FW. Randomized comparison of laparoscopy-assisted vaginal hysterectomy with standard vaginal hysterectomy in an outpatient setting. Obstet Gynecol 1992;80(6):895.

Sunshine A, Roure C, Colon A, Olson NZ, Gonzalez L, Siegel C, Laska E. Analgesic efficacy of piroxicam in the treatment of postoperative pain. Am J Med 1988;84(5A):16–22.

Tan PP, Wong CH, Loe PP, Lee YH. Comparison of alfentanil and fentanyl for anesthesia in short gynecologic procedures. J Formos Med Assoc 1996;95(7):540–544.

Tintara H, Choobun T, Geater A. Gasless laparoscopic hysterectomy: A comparative study with total abdominal hysterectomy. Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology Research 2003;29(1):38-44.

Tsai EM, Chen HS, Long CY, Yang CH, Hsu SC, Wu CH, Lee JN. Laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy versus total abdominal hysterectomy: a study of 100 cases on light-endorsed transvaginal section. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2003;55(2):105.

Tuttle AA, Katz JA, Bridenbaugh PO, Quinlan R, Knarr D. A double-blind comparison of the abdominal wall relaxation produced by epidural 0.75% ropivacaine and 0.75% bupivacaine in gynecologic surgery. Reg Anesth 1995;20(6):515–520.

Valles J, Samso E, Vilar X, Gallart L, Puig MM. Pharmacy savings generated by preoperative administration of clonidine. J Clin Anesth 1998;10(1):36.

Vangen O, Doessland S, Lindbaek E. Comparative study of ketorolac and paracetamol/codeine in alleviating pain following gynaecological surgery. J Int Med Res 1988;16(6):443-51.

Verborgh C, Van der Auwera D, Noorduin H, Camu F. Epidural sufentanil for post-operative pain relief: effects of adrenaline. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1988;5(3):183-91.

Wallace LM. Surgical patients’ expectations of pain and discomfort: does accuracy of expectations minimise post-surgical pain and distress? Pain 1985;22(4):363–373.

White PF. Subcutaneous-PCA: an alternative to IV-PCA for postoperative pain management. Clin J Pain 1990;6(4):297–300.

Woo R, Seltzer JL, Marr A. The lack of response to suggestion under controlled surgical anesthesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 1987;31(7):567.

Yamaguchi H, Watanabe S, Fukuda T, Takahashi H, Motokawa K, Ishizawa Y. Minimal effective dose of intrathecal morphine for pain relief following transabdominal hysterectomy. Anesth Analg 1989;68(4):537-40.

Yamaguchi R, Nishikawa Y, Tsubomoto S, Ueha K, Tomii Y. Preventive procedure of dysuria after radical hysterectomy by adnexal flap fixation to the bladder. Tohoku J Exp Med 1976;119(3):211-21.

Yaubihi N, Oberoi GS. Comparison of conventional anaesthesia, total intravenous ketamine and epidural block for abdominal hysterectomy. P N G Med J 1994;37(4):209.

Yee JP, Koshiver JE, Allbon C, Brown CR. Comparison of intramuscular ketorolac tromethamine and morphine sulfate for analgesia of pain after major surgery. Pharmacotherapy 1986;6(5):253.

Young L, Humphrey M. Cognitive methods of preparing women for hysterectomy: does a booklet help? Br J Clin Psychol 1985;24 ( Pt 4):303.

Yuen PM, Mak TW, Yim SF, Kee WD, Lam CW, Rogers MS, Chang AM. Metabolic and inflammatory responses after laparoscopic and abdominal hysterectomy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1998;179(1):1-5.